This is my persuasive essay on capital punishment that provokes a lot of discussions. Do we need such a form of punishment?.
Table of contents
- Capital punishment debate in the United States
- 500+ Words Essay on Capital Punishment
- BBC - Ethics - Capital punishment: Arguments against capital punishment
- Capital punishment should not be reintroduced essay
- Why choose our homework help?
In addition to growing organizations, the movement also profited from growing European abolishment of the death penalty and from the controversial executions of Barbara Graham and Caryl Chessman. Success mounted in the late s as Alaska , Hawaii , and Delaware abolished capital punishment.
Oregon and Iowa followed their leads in the s. Many other states added laws that restricted the use of the death penalty except in cases of extreme serious offenses. Abolitionists began to strongly challenge the constitutionality of the death penalty in the s. Lawyers from the American Civil Liberties Union and from the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund launched a major campaign challenging the death penalty's constitutionality and insisted a moratorium for all executions while it was in process.
The United States executed zero people from to The anti-death penalty movement's biggest victory of this time period was the Supreme Court Case, Furman v.
Capital punishment debate in the United States
Georgia , of The Supreme Court found the current state of the death penalty unconstitutional due to its "arbitrary and discriminatory manner" of application. Twenty eight states did just that and the court eventually allowed the death penalty again through a series of cases in , collectively known as Gregg v. The anti-death penalty movement rose again in response to the reinstatement of capital punishment in many states. In the courts, the movement's response has yielded certain limitations on the death penalty's application.
For example, juveniles, the mentally ill, and the intellectually disabled can no longer be executed. The works of these organizations have brought about various restrictions on the use of capital punishment at the state level, including several statewide moratoriums and bans on capital punishment. As a result, some scholars consider the American death penalty to be relatively vulnerable in this contemporary period. By pressuring pharmaceutical manufacturers and raising awareness about protracted, painful, or "botched" execution attempts, activists have achieved some success at limiting the number of executions carried out.
Contemporary activism and advocacy has also highlighted the possibility of executing innocent people, an issue that has gained salience as DNA testing has established the innocence of several death-row convicts.
The Innocence Project has gained widespread recognition for its efforts to clear convictions using DNA evidence. Finally, many contemporary arguments focus on the greater cost of the death penalty compared to alternate sentences, which has attracted strong support in some state legislatures. Rather than possessing leaders and members who are possible beneficiaries of the movement's success, the anti-death penalty movement is composed of "moral entrepreneurs" who speak up for those who are under threat of being executed. In the U.
An ABC News survey in July found 65 percent in favour of capital punishment, consistent with other polling since A number of polls and studies have been done in recent years with various results. In the punishment phase of the federal capital case against Dzhokhar Tsarnaev in for the Boston Marathon bombings , the convict was given the death penalty.
Opinion polls in the state of Massachusetts, where the crime and the trial transpired, "showed that residents overwhelmingly favored life in prison for Mr. Many respondents said that life in prison for one so young would be a fate worse than death, and some worried that execution would make him a martyr. So in that sense, the jury was not representative of the state.
500+ Words Essay on Capital Punishment
In regard to capital punishment, deterrence is the notion that the death penalty for crimes such as murder may deter other individuals from engaging in crimes of a similar nature. Up till , most studies agreed that executing convicted criminals and publicizing these executions did not significantly deter other individuals from committing similar crimes. In , however, Ehrlich famously contradicted existing social science literature by seemingly proving the validity of the deterrence argument. In fact, a article about the validity of the deterrence effect problematizes previous studies, arguing that econometric estimates of execution deterrence are easily manipulated and, by extension, fallible.
Donohue III , a law professor at Yale with a doctorate in economics, and Justin Wolfers , an economist at the University of Pennsylvania, wrote that the death penalty "is applied so rarely that the number of homicides it can plausibly have caused or deterred cannot reliably be disentangled from the large year-to-year changes in the homicide rate caused by other factors.
The existing evidence for deterrence Naci Mocan , an economist at Louisiana State University, authored a study that looked at all 3, U. The study found that each execution prevented five homicides. But I do believe that people respond to incentives. In the Michigan Law Review in , Shepherd wrote, "Deterrence cannot be achieved with a halfhearted execution program.
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The question of whether or not the death penalty deters murder usually revolves around the statistical analysis. Studies have produced disputed results with disputed significance. This correlation can be interpreted in either that the death penalty increases murder rates by brutalizing society, which is known as the brutalization hypothesis, or that higher murder rates cause the state to retain or reintroduce the death penalty. However, supporters and opponents of the various statistical studies, on both sides of the issue, argue that correlation does not imply causation.
There is evidence that some of the major studies of capital punishment and deterrence are flawed due to model uncertainty, and that once this is accounted for, little evidence of deterrence remains. The case for a large deterrent effect of capital punishment has been significantly strengthened since the s, as a wave of sophisticated econometric studies have exploited a newly-available form of data, so-called panel data.
Surveys and polls conducted in the last 15 years show that some police chiefs and others involved in law enforcement may not believe that the death penalty has any deterrent effect on individuals who commit violent crimes. In a poll of randomly selected police chiefs from across the U.
They ranked it behind many other forms of crime control including reducing drug abuse and use, lowering technical barriers when prosecuting, putting more officers on the streets, and making prison sentences longer. They responded that a better economy with more jobs would lessen crime rates more than the death penalty. However, the police chiefs surveyed were more likely to favor capital punishment than the general population.
In addition to statistical evidence, psychological studies examine whether murderers think about the consequences of their actions before they commit a crime.
BBC - Ethics - Capital punishment: Arguments against capital punishment
Most homicides are spur-of-the-moment, spontaneous, emotionally impulsive acts. Murderers do not weigh their options very carefully in this type of setting Jackson It is very doubtful that killers give much thought to punishment before they kill Ross But some say the death penalty must be enforced even if the deterrent effect is unclear, like John McAdams, who teaches political science at Marquette University: "If we execute murderers and there is in fact no deterrent effect, we have killed a bunch of murderers.
If we fail to execute murderers, and doing so would in fact have deterred other murders, we have allowed the killing of a bunch of innocent victims. I would much rather risk the former. This, to me, is not a tough call. Maimonides argued that executing a defendant on anything less than absolute certainty would lead to a slippery slope of decreasing burdens of proof, until we would be convicting merely "according to the judge's caprice.
Maimonides' concern was maintaining popular respect for law, and he saw errors of commission as much more threatening than errors of omission. Cass R. Sunstein and Adrian Vermeule , both of Harvard law school, however, have argued that if there is a deterrent effect it will save innocent lives, which gives a life-life tradeoff. Capital punishment is the most premeditated of murders, to which no criminal's deed, however calculated, can be compared.
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For there to be an equivalency, the death penalty would have to punish a criminal who had warned his victim of the date on which he would inflict a horrible death on him and who, from that moment onward, had confined him at his mercy for months. Such a monster is not to be encountered in private life. The extent to which the deterrence argument is well-founded, however, is far from the only interesting and important aspect of this common justification of capital punishment.
In fact, current conceptualizations of the deterrence argument are also paramount, insofar as they implicitly operate under the assumption that the media and publicity are integral to shaping individuals' awareness and understandings of capital punishment. Although it is increasingly unclear as to whether or not the media's coverage has affected criminal behavior, it is necessary to examine how the media's coverage of executions and, more abstractly, its holistic construction of capital punishment has shaped people's actions and understandings related to this controversial practice.
Supporters of the death penalty, especially those who do not believe in the deterrent effect of the death penalty, say the threat of the death penalty could be used to urge capital defendants to plead guilty, testify against accomplices, or disclose the location of the victim's body. Norman Frink, a senior deputy district attorney in the state of Oregon, considers capital punishment a valuable tool for prosecutors.
Prosecutors spared Ridgway from execution in exchange for his cooperation in leading police to the remains of still-missing victims. The media plays a crucial role in the production and reproduction of various cultural discourses,  and is imperative to reflexively shaping and being shaped by pervading cultural beliefs and attitudes.
Capital punishment should not be reintroduced essay
Journalists and producers play integral roles in shaping the media's framing of the death penalty. But frames develop through a wide variety of social actors and stakeholders. In terms of capital punishment, the media's framing of Timothy McVeigh 's execution was interactionally accomplished by a variety of people.
Despite the fact that media frames are ubiquitous, the public is not always cognizant of the particular frames with which they are bombarded. This is largely because the media frames issues in a way that, more often than not, keeps people from fully realizing said frames.
Media frames can dramatically over-simplify complex social issues. More specifically, the media simplifies complex cases by ensuring news stories adhere to generally taken-for-granted, preexisting cultural understandings of capital crimes. In order of popularity, the other common frames journalists use to frame execution and the death penalty pertain to competency, legal procedures, politics, religion, state-assisted suicide, and inmate suffering.
Although most literature shows that in general, the media frames executions and capital punishment favorably by minimizing the complexities of each case, conversely, some studies show that the media frames executions and capital punishment in an overly negative way.
Both conditions are achieved through reducing and obscuring the complexities embedded in capital crime cases. Since childhood we have been taught this indisputable truth. Ask yourself, then, what is capital punishment? In its simplest form, capital punishment is defined as one person taking the life of another.
Coincidentally, that is the definition of murder.
Why choose our homework help?
There are 36 states with the death penalty, and they must change. These states need to abolish it on the grounds that it carries a dangerous risk of punishing the innocent, is unethical and barbaric, and is an ineffective deterrent of crime versus the alternative of life in prison without parole. Humans, as a species, are famous for their mistakes.
However, in the case of the death penalty, error becomes too dangerous a risk. The innocent lives that have been taken with the approval of our own government should be enough to abolish capital punishment.